DescriptionQuestion1:
Beginning in 1950, global agricultural production increased dramatically due to
technical innovations and improvements collectively referred to as the first and
second green revolutions. Which of the following are part of the green revolutions?
Check all that apply.
A: Heavy equipment use
B: Polyculture
C: Pesticides
D: Multiple cropping
E: High water use for irrigation
Which of the following increased during the first green revolution?
Check all that apply.
A: The amount of human labor necessary to grow 1 acre of corn
B: The energy expended in irrigating 1 acre of corn
C: The amount of nitrogen and phosphorus applied to 1 acre of corn
D: The amount of corn grown on 1 acre of land
E: The amount of pesticide applied to 1 acre of corn
If corn yields had changed at exactly the same rate as nitrogen inputs did, then all of
the data points would lie on the slope reference. Instead, the data points are below it.
Which of the following are valid interpretations?
Check all that apply.
A: Nitrogen inputs increased more quickly than corn yields.
B: Nitrogen inputs increased more slowly than corn yields.
C: By the end of the first green revolution, the average bushel of corn required
more nitrogen than it did in 1940.
D: Corn yields decreased more rapidly than nitrogen inputs.
The first green revolution occurred between 1950 and 1970; the second green
revolution has been taking place since 1967. Some scientists are warning that the the
green revolution is unlikely to continue to expand in the future. Which of the
following best explains their reasoning?
A: The amount of land and water necessary for such high crop yields has
continually been replenished, and will continue to do so in the future.
B: Crop yields around the world will eventually reach a level of diminishing
returns if they haven’t done so already.
Question2:
Aside from enteric methane, the largest greenhouse gas contribution comes from the
production of animal feed. Which of the following are likely to be included in feed
production?
Check all that apply.
A: Fuel for farm machinery
B: Use of irrigation systems
C: Production of fertilizer
D: Transporting feed to animal farms
Which of the following are valid conclusions from the data on graph 2?
Check all that apply.
A: Lamb meat’s overall contribution to global warming is greater than beef’s
overall contribution.
B: A kilogram of cheese results in lower greenhouse gas emissions than a
kilogram of pork.
C: Pork’s post-farmgate emissions are higher than cheese’s post-farmgate
emissions.
D: Chicken and tuna produce the lowest greenhouse gas emissions, per kilogram
of food, of all meats.
How much of a greenhouse gas reduction could someone effect by moving closer to a
vegetarian diet? The average American consumes 27 kg of chicken in a year. Each
kilogram of chicken contains approximately 203.3 g of protein. Each kilogram of dry
beans contains approximately 235.8 g of protein. Use this information and the
information contained in graph 2 to answer the following questions.
How many kilograms of CO₂ equivalents are emitted in the production and postfarmgate processing of 27 kg of chicken?(To calculate the post-farmgate emissions,
multiply the number of kilograms of chicken by the estimated emissions per kilogram
of chicken after production from graph 2.)
A: 810.0 kg
B: 278.3 kg
C: 186.3 kg
How many grams of protein are contained in 27 kg of chicken?(To calculate the
grams of protein present in an amount of chicken, multiply the number of kilograms
of chicken by the number of grams of protein each kilogram of chicken contains.)
A: 5389.1 g
B: 4749.5 g
C: 8094.0 g
How many kilograms of dry beans would provide the same amount of protein as 27
kg of chicken?(To calculate the amount of dry beans necessary to replace the protein
in 27 kg of chicken, start with the number of grams of protein present in that amount
of chicken. Divide that number by the number of grams of protein present in 1 kg of
dry beans.)
A: 38 kg
B: 23 kg
C: 20 kg
D: 21 kg
How many kilograms of CO₂ equivalents are emitted in the production and postfarmgate processing of the quantity of dry beans calculated above?(To calculate the
emissions, in kilograms CO₂e for an amount of dry beans, multiply the number of
kilograms of dry beans by the estimated emissions per kilogram of dry beans from
graph 2.)
A: 40 kg
B: 19 kg
C: 87 kg
D: 46 kg
Question3:
Today, most of the goods that people eat and use are the products of crossbreeding or
genetic engineering.
Of the two, A: genetic engineering, B: crossbreeding is a much A: faster, B:
slower process because it alters an organism’s genetic material through adding,
deleting, or changing segments of its DNA to develop genetically improved strains of
crops and livestock animals. A: Crossbreeding, B: Genetic engineering, on the
other hand, involves the selective breeding of individuals with desirable traits over
many generations to develop genetically improved varieties of crops and livestock
animals.
In which of these examples have humans altered the genome of the organism
discussed?
A: Both the PPV-resistant plum and lager
B: PPV-resistant plum
C: Lager
Based on their descriptions, which of the following is considered a genetically
modified organism (GMO)?
A: PPV-resistant plum
B: Lager
C: Both the PPV-resistant plum and lager
Currently, some scientists see A: genetic engineering, B: crossbreeding, C:
artificial selection as a way to improve global food security. Others disagree,
however, and say that this strategy will produce more problems than benefits with
ensuring food security. What are their concerns for relying on this strategy?
Check all that apply.
A: It can encourage genetic resistance in insects, weeds, and plant diseases.
B: Beneficial insects and other organisms could be harmed as a side effect.
C: It can lead to loss of genetic diversity.
Question4:
Despite its effect on human health, which of the following would best explain why
diazinon is still widely used in agriculture?
A: It kills natural predators and parasites that help to control pest populations
B: It increases profits for farmers by working quickly and by increasing crop
yields
On February 5, what was the approximate average volume of water discharged into
the river?
A: 500 ft³/sec
B: 300 ng/L
C: 100 ng/L
D: 1,500 ft³/sec
On February 10, what was the approximate concentration of diazinon measured in the
river?
A: 1,700 ft³/sec
B: 650 ng/L
C: 4,200 ft³/sec
D: 300 ng/L
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between water
discharge and diazinon concentration in the San Joaquin River?
A: Increases in diazinon concentration roughly correlate with an absence of
water discharge.
B: There is no relationship between diazinon concentration and water
discharge.
C: Increases in diazinon concentration roughly correlate with increases in water
discharge.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has determined that diazinon in
concentrations greater than 170 ng/L may harm freshwater organisms. Did the
diazinon concentration in the San Joaquin River exceed this standard in February
1993?
A: Yes
B: No
Which of the following practices could reduce the amount of diazinon discharged into
the San Joaquin River?
Check all that apply.
A: Increased application of water to crops
B: Introduction of pests’ natural predators to fields
C: Use of plant strains that have been engineered to resist pests
D: Application of hormones that disrupt insect development
Question5:
Which image appears to show greater topsoil erosion?
A: Image B
B: Image A
As a result, water pollution is likely to be less of a problem in image A: A, B: B
What is this practice called?
A: Contour planting
B: Alley cropping
C: Conservation-tillage farming
1: Process:
A: Desertification, B: Loss of soil fertility, C: Salinization
Process Description: Removal of A: pesticides, B: nutrients, C: GMOs from topsoil
erosion
Conservation Strtegy: Use organic fertilizers or crop rotation
2: Process:
A: Desertification, B: Loss of soil fertility, C: Salinization
Process Description: Drying out of A: nutrients, B: soil due to drought and human
activities that degrade topsoil
Conservation Strtegy: Halt the clearing of trees or grasses for farming and reduce
overgrazing in pastures
3: Process:
A: Desertification, B: Loss of soil fertility, C: Salinization
Process Description: Buildup of salts in the upper layers of soil from repeated
irrigation
Conservation Strtegy: Grow A: less, B: more water-intensive crops in areas subject to
high evaporation rates
There are many actions that individuals can take to shift to a more sustainable lifestyle
in regard to food production. For example, how does adopting the practices in the
following table promote sustainable food production and processing? For each
practice,
check all that apply.
Practice: check all that apply.
Buying organic produce
A: Reduces Greenhouse Gas Emissions
B: Reduces Pesticide Use
C: Reduces Water Pollution
D: Conserves Topsoil
Practice: check all that apply.
Supporting local farms
A: Reduces Greenhouse Gas Emissions
B: Reduces Pesticide Use
C: Reduces Water Pollution
D: Conserves Topsoil
Practice: check all that apply.
Reducing meat consumption
A: Reduces Greenhouse Gas Emissions
B: Reduces Pesticide Use
C: Reduces Water Pollution
D: Conserves Topsoil
Question6:
Most of the freshwater on earth is locked up as ice in glaciers. A small percentage of
freshwater is also frozen in permafrost (underground soil in which captured water
stays frozen for more than two consecutive years). In fact, 1.74% of the total water on
earth is frozen in glaciers and permafrost:
0.8% permafrost + 68.7% glaciers =A: 69.5%, B: 14.2%, C: 44.4%, D: 73.6% of all
freshwater is frozen
Changing this percentage to its respective decimal form, you get 69.5% = 69.5100
= 0.695
Thus, 0.695 x 2.5% = 1.74% of all water on earth is frozen
After glaciers, the next most abundant freshwater source on earth is A: freshwater
from lakes, B: groundwater, C: permafrost, which makes up 30.1% of all
freshwater and provides nearly half of the world’s drinking supply.
The most easily accessible and reliable source of freshwater for human use and
consumption is surface and atmospheric water that is collected in lakes, rivers, and
wetlands as runoff. Collectively, these freshwater sources comprise less than 0.4% of
the total freshwater on earth.
According to the animation and your own calculations, what percentage of the total
water on earth do freshwater lakes compose? (Calculate this percentage in two steps:
(1) First, follow similar mathematical steps outlined in the previous set of questions to
calculate the percentage of total surface and atmospheric water that is made up of
freshwater lakes; (2) then, change your percentage in (1) to decimal form and multiply
by 2.5% (the percentage of total freshwater on earth)
A: 0.00674%
B: 0.2696%
C: 0.674%
Although the world’s freshwater supply is A: evenly distributed, B: never
recharged, C: continually recycled , the amount of freshwater available to humans
is A: rather vast, B: fairly abundant, C: extremely small
Which of the following will be affected most directly by future water shortages in this
example?
A: The environment
B: The economy
C: National and global security
Question7:
Freshwater that falls as precipitation can have different paths once it hits land: It can
percolate downward, A: naturally, B: laterally recharging underground aquifers, or
it can flow across the earth’s land surface as A: evaporation, B: runoff and into
nearby wetlands, lakes, and oceans.
In addition, freshwater from lakes, rivers, and streams can laterally recharge
underground aquifers. This type of recharge helps replenish groundwater supplies in
aquifers from the side, below the earth’s surface, rather than from above the earth’s
surface.
All of these paths are considered A: nonrenewable, B: renewable sources of
freshwater, unlike some very deep aquifers that get very little, if any, freshwater
replenishment.
Groundwater in aquifers and reliable surface water from precipitation are two critical
freshwater resources. Review the following data describing the distribution of
freshwater that originates as precipitation. The distributions are recorded for three
different climate regions: temperate, semiarid, and arid. Then answer the questions
that follow.
According to these data, regions with arid climates, such as Saudi Arabia and South
Africa, have the A: most, B: least precipitation compared to regions with temperate
and semiarid climates. Regions with arid climates also have the highest rate of A:
surface evaporation, B: surface runoff, C: groundwater recharge and the lowest
rate of A: surface evaporation, B: surface runoff, C: groundwater recharge.
Given these data, you can conclude that freshwater from precipitation is distributed
A: unevenly, B: evenly in the world. Which climate region will likely suffer the least
with increasing freshwater shortages?
A: Temperate regions
B: Arid regions
C: Semiarid regions
Question8:
From what you know about water footprints, which of the following makes up the
majority of the average American’s water footprint?
A: Water used in making our consumer products
B: Water used in flushing toilets and taking showers
C: Water lost from inefficient faucets and water used in washing machines
Referring to the map, rank the external water footprint for agricultural products
consumed in the Netherlands, from smallest to largest, using the following dropdown
menus.
A: Venezuela, B: Canada, C: Australia < A: Venezuela, B: Canada, C: Australia < A: Venezuela, B: Canada, C: Australia Eight countries where the Netherlands’ external water footprint is of particular concern are also delineated on the map as hotspots (if you haven’t done so already, click the blue link “Hotspots” to outline these areas in yellow). Their main exported products to the Netherlands are also listed. The external water footprint from these hotspots is particularly impacted because these countries are currently experiencing serious water scarcity. This means that, in the Netherlands, buying coffee products from Colombia will have a much A: higher, B: lower environmental impact than buying coffee goods produced and shipped from Mexico. Currently, the cost of virtual water is not included in market prices. If producers were to include this cost and use full-cost pricing for the food products presented in the graph, which food item would you expect to have the smallest increase in price? A: Beef B: Rice C: Chocolate With growing water shortages in many parts of the world today, everyone can make a difference by reducing his or her water footprint. Which of the following is a strategy that would help achieve this goal? A: Buy food products that come from water-short areas. B: Water your lawn and gardens in the early afternoon to increase evaporation rates. C: Check and fix all leaks in home faucets and toilets. Question9: Methodology is Captures, stores, and controls surface runoff in a watershed, what is Approach? A: pumping aquifers B: Transferring water C: Building dams and reservoirs Methodology is Diverts freshwater from one region to another, what is Approach? A: pumping aquifers B: Transferring water C: Building dams and reservoirs Methodology is Withdraws freshwater from underground, what is Approach? A: pumping aquifers B: Transferring water C: Building dams and reservoirs Advantage: Inexpensive irrigation for agricultural regions, what is Approach? A: Building dams and reservoirs B: Transferring water C: Pumping aquifers Advantage: Inexpensive irrigation for agricultural regions, what is Disadvantage? A: Potential for microfiltration B: Potential for land subsidence Advantage: Provides recreational activities, what is Approach? A: Building dams and reservoirs B: Transferring water C: Pumping aquifers Advantage: Provides recreational activities, what is Disadvantage? A: Decreased utility due to sinkhole buildup over time B: Decreased utility due to sediment buildup over time C: Decreased utility due to water buildup over time Advantage: Increases freshwater availability in otherwise water-poor areas, what is Approach? A: Building dams and reservoirs B: Transferring water C: Pumping aquifers Of the three approaches given in the preceding tables, which approach does trapping fog in Chile most closely mimic, but on a much smaller scale? A: Pumping aquifers B: Building dams and reservoirs C: Transferring water D: Using desalination technology Question9: According to the World Resources Institute, about 66% of the freshwater used in the world is unnecessarily wasted. For example, 40% of freshwater is wasted in agricultural crop irrigation. Which of the following would help reduce this freshwater waste? A: Treat and reuse sewage water for crop production B: Replace microirrigation systems with spray irrigation systems whenever possible C: Provide subsidies for farmers to install flood irrigation systems Additionally, in the industry sector, more than 95% of the freshwater used to make steel could be recycled but isn’t. What are ways to reduce this freshwater waste? Check all that apply. A: Provide government subsidies for improving the efficiency of freshwater use B: Raise water prices C: Redesign manufacturing processes to use more water Reducing freshwater waste from industrial use would have a relatively smaller impact on freshwater availability in A: high-income, B: low- and middle- income countries Reducing freshwater waste from crop irrigation would have a relatively smaller impact on freshwater availability in A: high-income, B: low- and middle- income countries. Amount of water you would save per day by turning off the faucet: A: 6, B: 2, C: 12 gallons/day Amount of water you would save per year: A: 4380, B: 1560, C: 7690 gallons/year Note that, in a year, the average African family uses 1,825 gallons of water. Consider how your previous calculations of shutting the faucet tap when brushing your teeth compare to this number. Question10: Water pollution can make any body of water unfit for living organisms, including humans. In fact, more than 5 million people die each year from contaminated water. That’s about equivalent to the entire population of Norway. The following animation depicts a drainage pipe contaminating a stream with biodegradable wastes, with the associated oxygen sag curve superimposed on the stream. Unlike A: point, B: nonpoint pollution sources, A: point, B: nonpoint pollution sources, such as this drainage pipe, are fairly easy to identify, monitor, and regulate. That is, the pollutants from this pipe are most likely coming from A: lawns, B: a factory, C: cropland rather than A: a sewage treatment plant B: an industrial facility C: crop land ; this makes the discharges coming from the pipe more easily traceable to a specific source that can then be held accountable for the pollution in the stream. According to this animation, how far downstream from the drainage pipe is oxygen the highest? A: At 30–50 m downstream from the drainage pipe B: At 10–20 m downstream from the drainage pipe C: At 20–30 m downstream from the drainage pipe Of the following locations downstream from the drainage pipe, at what point has the stream cleansed itself from biodegradable pollutants? A: At 30–50 m downstream from the drainage pipe B: At 10–20 m downstream from the drainage pipe C: At 20–30 m downstream from the drainage pipe Imagine now that this drainage pipe is located in a stream with a faster water flow moving downstream (from left to right). In this new scenario, the increased rate of clean water flowing into the area will help dilute pollutants, which should result in A: the same, B: lower, C: higher concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the waters near the drainage pipe. Choose one graph Streams can recover from pollution, as long as they are not overloaded with pollutants and are continually replenished with clean water. However, other sources of freshwater, such as lakes and groundwater, are more susceptible to pollution and have a much harder time cleansing themselves compared to rivers and streams. Of the two water sources, lakes and groundwater, A: groundwater, B: a lake has an easier time cleansing itself. This is because: A: It has the lowest rate of water flow, so once it is contaminated, it takes decades to thousands of years for it to cleanse itself. B: It is more effective at diluting pollutants, as it has higher rates of flushing and changing water. C: It has stratified layers and, thus, more vertical mixing. Question11: According to the map, people living in the A: southeastern, B: southwestern region of the country are generally more likely to find arsenic in their tap water, particularly if their underground water is left untreated. In 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) lowered the maximum level of arsenic permitted in drinking water from 50 parts per billion (ppb) to 10 ppb. Based on the data provided, what states might have areas where at least 25% of their wells exceed the EPA’s federal safety thresholds for arsenic? Check all that apply. A: Florida (FL) B: Texas (TX) C: Oregon (OR) D: Nevada (NV) Instead of worrying about tap water contaminants such as arsenic, Americans have the luxury of turning to bottled water. But is drinking bottled water really safer? The National Resources Defense Council (NRDC) conducted a four-year investigation to evaluate the quality of bottled water: They measured the concentration of several water pollutants from sample water bottles produced by various companies. The following graph depicts a small subset of these data: arsenic concentrations sampled from nine different brands of bottled water. Note that each bar in the graph is from one water bottle sample; two or three bottles of water were sampled for each brand. Notice that maximum contaminant levels for two different standards are shown by dotted lines on the graph. Compared to California (CA Prop 65 level) standards, the maximum arsenic concentrations of drinking water set by the federal EPA standards are much more A: rigorous, B: lenient Taking the average between samples, which of the following brand(s) of bottled water comply with the federal standards? Check all that apply. A: Apollinaris Sparkling Mineral Water B: Palomar Mountain Spring Water C: Odwalla Geothermal Natural Spring Water Taking the average between samples, which of the following brand(s) of bottled water comply with Proposition 65 standards? Check all that apply. A: Odwalla Geothermal Natural Spring Water B: Apollinaris Sparkling Mineral Water C: Palomar Mountain Spring Water Given what you have learned here and from your text, what might be the most effective strategy to improve our drinking water while also incurring the least environmental impact? A: Find ways to clean up the North Pacific Garbage Patch B: Ban any activities that might result in groundwater pollution, such as storing hazardous waste in underground tanks C: Require bottled water companies to comply with the Safe Drinking Water Act Question12: On April 20, 2010, BP Company’s Deepwater Horizon offshore oil-drilling rig exploded 64 kilometers (40 miles) off the Louisiana coast, releasing 4.9 million barrels (206 million gallons) of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Researcher Nancy Rabalais, director of Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, studies factors—such as the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, annual precipitation patterns, and seasonal agricultural practices—that affect the dead zones found in the Gulf of Mexico. Read about these factors affecting dead zones in the article and answer the questions that follow. Spring rains bring life to Midwest granaries but foster Gulf of Mexico ‘Dead Zone’ NEW ORLEANS, April 9, 2013 — The most serious ongoing water pollution problem in the Gulf of Mexico originates not from oil rigs, as many people believe, but rainstorms and fields of corn and soybeans a thousand miles away in the Midwest. An expert on that problem — the infamous Gulf of Mexico “Dead Zone” — today called for greater awareness of the connections between rainfall and agriculture in the Midwest and the increasingly severe water quality problems in the gulf. Keynoting a symposium at the 245th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society, the world’s largest scientific society, Nancy N. Rabalais, Ph.D., emphasized that oil spills like the 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster, claim a terrible toll. Sometimes, however, they overshadow the underlying water pollution problem that has been growing more and more severe for almost 40 years. “The Dead Zone is a vast expanse of water, sometimes as large as the state of Massachusetts, that has so little oxygen that fish, shellfish and other marine life cannot survive,” Rabalais explained. “The oxygen disappears as a result of fertilizer that washes off farm fields in the Midwest into the Mississippi River. Just as fertilizer makes corn and soybeans grow, it stimulates the growth of plants in the water — algae in the Gulf. The algae bloom and eventually die and decay, removing oxygen from the water. The result is water too oxygen-depleted to support life.” [An oceanographer and executive director of the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium,] Rabalais described how the Dead Zone is getting larger and more desolate, with lower concentrations of oxygen dissolved in the water. The Gulf also seems to be more sensitive to the nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers that wash down the Mississippi River and the Atchafalaya River today than it was in the past. Concentrations of fertilizer that caused a relatively small amount of oxygen depletion now are having a more profound effect. Fish and shellfish either leave the oxygen-depleted water or die, causing losses to commercial and sports fisheries in the Gulf, she noted. Dead fish sometimes wash up onto beaches, with a negative impact on recreational activities and tourism. Oil spills and other local pollution compound those negative effects on marine life, Rabalais noted. By day 77 of the Deepwater Horizon disaster, for instance, the oil slick had covered about one-third of the Dead Zone, making it even more inhospitable. The amounts of phosphorus fertilizer compounds in the Lower Mississippi have doubled and nitrogen compounds have tripled nitrogen over the last 50 years, Rabalais said. Oxygen levels in the Dead Zone have declined in parallel. Rabalais pointed out that advances in chemistry and other fields do promise solutions. Fertilizers that stay in the soil and resist runoff, for instance, could have a big impact. Genetically modifying crops so that they produce some of their own fertilizer could also help with the problem. According to the article, Rabalais notes that the Deepwater Horizon oil-rig spill A: had no effect on, B: mitigated, C: caused, D: intensified the dead zones found in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. Why might this be the case? A: Although dead zones in the Gulf of Mexico are not new, these areas became even more unfavorable to marine life following the oil-rig spill. B: Oil spills cause algae populations to explode, which then causes dead zones. C: Oil tends to counteract the effects of fertilizer runoff, thus increasing the chances of marine organisms surviving in these dead zones. In an interview with WWL-TV Eyewitness News, Rabalais has also said that the dead zones in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 were not as bad as expected because of tropical storm Bonnie. Given what you know about dead zones, why would this be so? A: It churned ocean waters, effectively moving oxygen to areas that suffered from hypoxia. B: It kept oil from reaching the ocean surface so its effects were lessened. C: It increased flooding on land and, thus, increased surface runoff into the Gulf of Mexico. Which of the following is most affected as a result of these dead zones? A: Organisms that are strong swimmers B: Any organism that relies on oxygen C: Bottom-dwelling organisms that are sedentary Of the following actions, which would be the most beneficial in stopping the dead zones from reappearing in the Gulf of Mexico in the future? A: Enforce stricter safety standards and inspections to reduce oil well blowouts at sea B: Focus on reducing point-source pollution instead of nonpoint-source pollution C: Decrease the use of crop fertilizers in the Mississippi River Basin Question13: Given these data, the A: Yellow, B: Pearl, C: Yangtze River estuaries have the highest petroleum pollutant loads. Of the following seas, which is most affected by river oil spills and leaks? A: Bohai B: East China Sea C: South China Sea In 2010, A: more than 650,000 tons, B: more than 80,000 tons, C: less than 20,000 tons of petroleum, ammonia, and phosphorus were discharged into the East China Sea, while A: less than 25,000 tons, B: approximately 80,000 tons, C: more than 650,000 tons of petroleum, ammonia, and phosphorus were discharged into Bohai. According to these numbers, oxygen-depleted zones are more likely to be present in A Bohai, B: the East China Sea. According to the data, nonplastic litter comprises more than half of the type of litter in which of the following locations? A: As floating marine litter B: On the beach C: On the sea floor D: None of the above As you have just learned, the waters surrounding China’s coastlines are plagued by excessive sewage and agricultural runoff, oil spills and leaks, and garbage. Which of the following actions would have the highest impact on reducing ocean pollution in this part of the world? A: Improve oil-spill cleanup by using more floating brooms and skimmer boats. B: Require all wastewater to be treated through conventional sewage treatment or wetland-based sewage treatment. C: Encourage farmers to use fertilizer on steeply sloped land. Question14: Two ways of dealing with any kind of pollution include prevention and cleanup: A: Cleanup, B: Prevention would include tactics that stop pollutants and wastes from even entering the environment; A: prevention, B: cleanup would include tactics that help mitigate the environmental effects of pollutants that have already entered the environment. Though both tactics play a huge role in reducing the effects of water pollution, prevention is a more effective tactic, because it uses less time, A: less, B: more energy, and less money to address the negative impacts of pollution and wastes. The following actions describe two ways that individuals can help mitigate the effects of pollution. Of the two, which one is an example of a prevention tactic? A: Do not dump any chemicals or unused medicines down home or municipal drains or into aquatic systems B: Encourage researchers and engineers to come up with innovative technologies that can help purify polluted w For example, on land, farmers have found a handful of A: legal, B: technological solutions, such as contour planting and strip cropping (see photo). This tactic can greatly A: stabilize, B: enhance, C: reduce soil erosion, and therefore the amount of sediments and chemicals flowing into nearby waterways. Further, on a broader scale, this technique can play a significant role in decreasing A: point, B: nonpoint sources of water pollution. Since the Exxon Valdez oil spill, many nations, including the United States, have enacted policies that require all new oil tankers to be constructed with a double hull (see photo). In the United States, the Oil Production Act of 1990 sets a schedule for tank barge fleets to gradually phase out all single-hulled vessels and replace them with double-hulled vessels. A double-hull design may provide an additional safety benefit over a single-hull design, because two layers of enclosures must be punctured before oil can be released into the environment. The A: legal, B: economic measure that the United States has taken to phase out single-hulled vessels is just one way to prevent water pollution from A: point, B: nonpoint sources. Purchase answer to see full attachment

  
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