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Theory Development and Evaluation 
Examine the science and art of theory development and evaluation.
 Hi, here are the 2 discussion for the responses. Ill need them in 12 in 15 hrs.peer 1 Gina;Examine The Science And Art Of Theory Development And Evaluation.                   The conceptual model of a theoretical framework and the subsequent distinct scientific evaluation of that framework are the foundations of both science and art in theory development (Butts & Rich, 2021). Theoretical frameworks provide a structure for organizing and interpreting data, allowing researchers to identify patterns and relationships. Through scientific evaluation, researchers can refine and revise their theoretical frameworks to better explain the phenomena they study. Theory consists of conceptual models, propositions, and the relationship between the two. Three main types of theories exist. Descriptive theories are the first type and are used to explain a phenomenon. The second category includes theories that aim to explain a phenomenon by detailing the interconnections between various concepts. The last type of theory is predictive theory, which aims to correlate one concept’s effect on another concept through propositions. Theories are crucial in scientific research as they provide a framework for understanding and predicting phenomena.           Theories help researchers identify the important variables in explaining a phenomenon and develop hypotheses that can be tested through empirical research. The art of developing theory exists within a specific conceptual-theoretical-empirical (CTE) structure (Butts & Rich, 2021). Theories are then evaluated within that structure. There is a highly developed five-step process to use critical thinking to evaluate theories. The first step is determining whether the two concepts’ linkage is sufficient. Next is an assessment of the theory to establish whether it is plausible and testable. The third step involves assessing the research methods used and whether those data methods are reliable and probable. Step four is a review of the results discovered. The final step is legitimizing how the research results support the conceptual model. This five-step process ensures that theories are thoroughly evaluated and supported by reliable evidence. By following these steps, researchers can avoid making assumptions or drawing conclusions based on incomplete or flawed data. Additionally, this process can help identify areas where further research may be needed to understand a particular concept or theory more comprehensively.         Specific instruments like coding schemes are used during methodology phases and are developed to evaluate theories within practice settings (Mårtensson et al., 2021). One example includes determining which evidence-based behaviors can be observed in nursing students through Swanson’s Caring Theory. Researchers can quantitatively evaluate abstract ideas with the help of tools and instruments. Another example includes analyzing nursing confidence levels of basic scientific concepts through online questionnaires (Ferrer, 2023). Confidence levels are an abstract concept within the theory that can be made into concrete evidence using instrumental measurements. These methods allow researchers to gather objective data that can be used to improve nursing education and practice. Using theories, researchers can predict how different concepts interact and design research studies to test these predictions. Overall, theories are essential tools for advancing our understanding of the nursing industry.             ReferencesButts, J. B., & Rich, K. L. (2021). Philosophies and Theories for Advanced Nursing Practice. Jones & Bartlett Learning.Ferrer, K. J. B., Lanot, B. T., Gica, I. J. S., Andrade, R. A. Q., Isoli, K. N. S., Vitalicio, K. H. O., Ramos, J. A. M., Topico, N. J. S. A., Fontanilla, J. R. C., Quejado, M. R.           M., Jadaone, A. G., Recede, R. A. A., & Carnecer, R. B. (2023). A Quantitative Analysis of the Nursing Students’ Level of Confidence in Their Knowledge of           Basic Science Concepts. International Journal of Multidisciplinary: Applied Business & Education Research, 4(2), 471–477.            https://doi.org/10.11594/ijmaber.04.02.15Mårtensson, S., Hodges, E. A., Knutsson, S., Hjelm, C., Broström, A., Swanson, K. M., & Björk, M. (2021). Caring Behavior Coding Scheme based on Swanson’s           Theory of Caring — development and testing among undergraduate nursing students. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 35(4), 1123–1133.            https://doi.org/10.1111/scs.12927peer 2 Mirta:                                                                                          Introduction     A theory is any set of concepts and ideas used to explain a phenomenon. Theories are developed after careful examination of events to establish a structured set of concepts that predict the pattern of certain occurrences. Theories have been vital in making decisions because they provide a framework for how similar events turned out or expect how they would turn out (Skivington et al., 2021). Therefore, it is paramount that these theories are tested to ensure they were developed well and do not provide a false basis for decision-making. This essay will explore the art and science of theory development and evaluate it in detail.                                                                                                     Theory Development    Theory development is a complex process requiring an accurate definition of the key concepts and terms that concern the area of theory development. Theorist needs to gather the relevant data and evaluate the existing body of knowledge in a particular area. The initial data collection and evaluation involves the exploration of the current literature or performing research and experiments to develop the new data (Skivington et al., 2021). The theory to be developed could explain a new phenomenon or provide additional information to the existing information.    The next vital step is the development of a hypothesis based on the analysis of the existing literature or the experiments performed. The hypothesis represents the proposed relationship or conclusion between the variables in the experiment. Consequently, the subsequent step is the development of a theoretical framework that structures the theory and forms the basis of further research and decision-making (Doleman & Twigg, 2022). Once the theory has been developed, it should be tested and verified whether it should be used for universal purposes. The theory should apply in the stipulated setting, and any exceptions should be clearly stated.                                                                                             Theory Evaluation     Evaluation of theories is a continuous process to establish a theory’s feasibility and falsifiability. Several aspects and techniques are involved in theory evaluation, including formative, process, impact, and outcome evaluation. Formative evaluation is usually conducted in the initial stages of implementing a theory into practice. It involves assessing the level of appropriateness of a theory and how acceptable it is to the target population. Furthermore, formative evaluation evaluates how realistic and feasible a theory is. Process evaluation follows formative evaluation and is done during theory implementation and application to the target population.    Furthermore, outcome evaluation determines to what extent the theory achieved its preset goals and outcome objectives. A theory whose objectives are completed to the letter is ranked as highly effective and valuable. Consequently, impact evaluation is the final stage often ongoing for all theories. Impact evaluation assesses the long-term effects of a theory and whether its long-term goals have been achieved (Doleman & Twigg, 2022). From the evaluation, the theory can be recommended for continued use. Furthermore, crucial to theory evaluation is establishing the falsifiability of a theory. It is ranked as credible if it can remain valid even after rigorous testing.                                                                                                        Conclusion     Theory development and evaluation are important aspects of research and literature. Theory development is essential in developing a body of evidence-based and accurate knowledge for reference. Evaluation of the theories developed is vital to maintain the feasibility of the theories. Additionally, evaluating is essential to modify and refine the theories to provide an accurate framework for decision-making over a wide area. Evaluating theories can be done through peer reviews to ensure expert opinions are obtained from individuals in the same field.                                                                                          ReferencesDoleman, G., & Twigg, D. (2022). Development, implementation, and evaluation of a Professional Practice Model: A scoping review. Journal of Nursing Management. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13820Links to an external site.Skivington, K., Matthews, L., Simpson, S. A., Craig, P., Baird, J., Blazeby, J. M., Boyd, K. A., Craig, N., French, D. P., McIntosh, E., Petticrew, M., Rycroft-Malone, J., White, M., & Moore, L. (2021a). A new framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions: update of Medical Research Council guidance. BMJ, 374, n2061. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n2061Links to an external site.Skivington, K., Matthews, L., Simpson, S. A., Craig, P., Baird, J., Blazeby, J. M., Boyd, K. A., Craig, N., French, D. P., McIntosh, E., Petticrew, M., Rycroft-Malone, J., White, M., & Moore, L. (2021b, September 1). Scientific summary. Www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov; NIHR Journals Library. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK574177/Links to an external site.

  
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