Your instructor will be looking for you to engage in discussions with at least three (3) peers. During each of those engagements, your instructor will expect you to build on or respectfully refute the author’s position while displaying exemplary critical thinking skills. At least one relevant resources and that Adherence to Discussion Forum Standards and Guidelines: your instructor will be looking for you to follow all required standards (i.e. APA format; grammar; citations; references, other standards as required). Needs to be at least 250 words. Also references used must be creditable. Post 1: Fire departments were originally non-paid volunteers that were serving their communities. This practice of voluntary fire-fighter has been in used since 1736 with the assistance of Benjamin Franklin (Anderson, n.d.). What I found most surprising was the privatization of the fire department. I didn’t think that a fire department could be privately owned and operated. However, this practice later faded away and municipal paid fire-fighter became a norm for cities that had fire departments (Anderson, n.d.). This was mainly due to the influence of tradition each fire-fighter was able to pass on for generation and are service regardless of profit. Many homes used to have fire marks to show fire departments that if the house was to catch on fire the insurance company will pay more handsomely than a house without a fire mark (Anderson, n.d.). This issue of course will incentivize some fire department to work harder on building with the fire mark. Today, we no longer use fire marks to show fire department that a building is insured. A fire-fighter is willing to risk their lives to put out any fire regardless of if the building is insured or not.In the first century, police men were generally used to complete minor city tasks: run soup kitchen, recover lost children, and inspect boilers (Monkkonen, 1992). I found this interesting because of how much police officers do now. Over the years, police have become more preventive in crimes around their respected areas. Through their innovation the police were able to structure themselves like the military (Monkkonen, 1992). Also, many police departments know wear similar uniform to show that their patrol officers are servants to the city. This form of unity can be visible seen by civilians to distinguish in public. Commonly, police officer was called for any number of reasons, regardless of, if the call was considered a non-emergency. Police departments are now adopting a civilian response team to deal with non-emergency calls (KCAL News, 2023). This can help the police officer to focus more on emergency calls and let the load be spread around the department. I can see this solve many of the issue police officer face and allow trained professionals assist with any non-emergency that used to be handled by the police departmentPost 2: I come from a criminal justice background and am more familiar with the policing aspects of public safety. That being said, I certainly learned quite a bit from the history of policing from the reading by Monkkonen. I did not know that historically, Police officers in large cities were charged with the overnight housing of homeless individuals. From the reading I gather that before the redirection towards combatting crime, police departments and their officers truly embodied public servants. Monkkonen (1992) writes “Along with arresting offenders, the police took in tramps, returned lost children by the thousands, shot stray dogs, enforced sanitation laws, inspected boilers, took annual censuses, and performed myriad other small tasks.”The EMS system in the United States is a topic that I hadn’t given much thought to before now. The idea that a driving force for an organized service came from an increase in car accidents due to more cars on the road makes a lot of sense. More people driving, more accidents. President Johnson created the Commission on Highway Safety, who presented the findings In particular, the Commission felt that the timeliness and adequacy of care of the injured patient were criti- cal.” Thus ushering in a need for better training for EMS services, or any training at all as the percentages of trained EMS organizations was under 25% (Shah, 2006)I see a parallel in today’s EMS in the carrying of Narcan by many first responders. In a time where opioid overdoses are becoming more frequent, Narcan is a necessity for immediate medical treatment. Science and technology are always advancing, thankfully public safety services often benefit from them. I am intrigued about how all of these public safety agencies developed over time into what we have today. It is unfortunate for those in the past who had to deal with a substandard, unorganized, and often corrupt system. I personally believe that due to the nature of public safety, the services are and have been absolutely essential to a modern, civilized society. Unfortunately, some services were historically run by private companies, with little oversight, such as the London fire insurance companies who charged citizens to have any semblance of an emergency response to a fire. “In 1667 Nicholas Barbon set up an office for insuring houses against fire…” (Anderson, 1979). This “service” was implemented one year after the fire of London which was incredibly destructive. This kind of reactionary enterprise, to me appears to be an unethical money grabbing operation. This helps me understand the need for a public, not for profit, version of emergency services like we have today. It is not a perfect system, but it is adaptive, meant to be transparent, and generally has the wellbeing of citizens in mind.Post 3: Initially, police were not a part of the Anglo-American criminal justice system. There is no mention of police in the United States Constitution nor in any city charters. Cities had constables and night watches who were employed by the court system. These entities were supplemented by the private sector. Constables were responsible for civil and criminal courts. Night watches utilized volunteer services and paid substitutes; however, they were never really viewed as a realistic crime fighting organization (Monkkonen E, 1992).Four innovative features of police developed in the nineteenth century are as follows: the development of hierarchical structure, movement to the executive branch, uniforms and visibility, and proactiveness. The hierarchical structure created a command and communications structure based off of the military which was an improvement over the constable communication line. Police became a part of the executive branch of government instead of the judicial branch, where constables and watches were structured. Uniforms began to be worn by police which readily identified them. This allowed citizens access to officers quickly. Officers became more proactive in the prevention of crime since they were no longer involved in the judicial side of prosecution. Proactive patrols were also expected since they were receiving regular salaries instead of fees. This was the first initial shift to crime prevention compared to apprehension in order to be paid by fees. This stopped egregious and frivolous prosecutions which stopped corruption. Regular salaries also made police jobs more attractive (Monkkonen E, 1992).There are false claims that police forces modernized due to rising crime. However, there are statistics to show that police forces modernized and increased due to riots throughout the United States. Police forces grew in the 1860s from 1.3 officers for every one thousand people to approximately 2 officers per one thousand people around 1908. The end of the nineteenth century saw a decrease in patrol hours by officers, some of which is due to police shifts changing from two twelve hours shifts to three eight hours shifts. In addition to crime prevention, police would be responsible for arresting offenders, returning lost children, shooting stray dogs, enforcing sanitation laws, inspecting boilers, and conducting censuses, which transformed them to city servants and crime control officers. This transformation made it difficult for officers to fulfill crime related functions, such catching offenders or controlling riots. A shift back towards crime control occurred in 1894, which was identified by murder and other felony arrests. By the end of World War I, police were solely back to crime control. Their non-crime tasks were reassigned to other city or state agencies (Monkkonen E, 1992).Throughout time, the responsibility and duties of a police officer have changed. This is shown from the shift in responsibilities and most recently, with the defund and fund the police movements. In the past and in modern day, tasks have been assigned to the police that are not always in their realm of responsibility. This can be a result of staffing levels, unsure of which agency has the responsibility, or change in politics and perception. One thing that has constantly failed is ensuring law enforcement has proper training in all their areas of responsibility. Modern day evolution has created agencies such as Animal Control and Code Enforcement that handle stray animals and building inspections, which formerly fell to police. There are also studies being done on whether law enforcement should be handling incidents involving mentally ill subjects. This change started in 1968 when the Los Angeles Police Department first hired a full-time psychologist (Reese J T, 1987).Currently there is a shift in theory and philosophy in policing. Broken windows theory, also known as zero tolerance policing, has been labeled as a police state that targets minorities and lower income communities. There was a shift to problem-oriented policing, intelligence led policing, and now community policing (Crichlow V, 2016). Targeting lower-level crimes created intelligence to allow law enforcement to work towards larger concerns and problems. A mix of all the theories of policing would probably work together. The consistent thing between time is others outside of law enforcement dictating their responsibilities.

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